External links page of RWD Nickalls

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External links


Homepage | Selected publications | Anaesthesia workstation |

Starters | General | Anaesthesia | Medical Computing | Linux | TeX | Perl | GNUplot | WWW | Pulfrich | Maths | WF Daniell |

arrowup Starters ...

Cafe Scientifique | Coffee chemistry | n-Category Cafe | The Drawbridge | Edge |

YouTube | CinemaWorld | BBC iPlayer | BBC magazine

Doctors.net.uk | Google | DuckDuckGo | time&date | British Met Office | WeatherSpark | Postcodes

Periodic table | Periodic Table videos | Casio calculator | true random number generator | Time is

HM Nautical Almanac Office | Nautical Almanac online | TheNauticalAlmanac | Thomas Gunn Navigation Store | Eclipses info | Severn bore | BSS

Transport-direct | seat61 | tripadvisor | exchange rate calculator | streetmap utility

AbeBooks | books (France) | Cheltenham

arrowup General links

OpenUniv |homepage |Goethe |

open2.net (Open Univ/BBC popular science)

FilmClips Tango (AlPacino: Scent of a woman, 1992)

Journals: | Nature | Science | ScienceNOW | The Lancet |

science search and TOC | NIH-pubmed | ScienceDirect | SemanticScholar |

science journal and e-print archives JSTOR | arXiv | arXiv easy-frontend |

HOWTOs | wikihowto

CERN homepage | mapsearch | maps | guide2visiting | CERN Bulletin | CERN Interactions | CERNTV |

CERN Opendays 2013 videoLectures |

FERMILAB homepage | today journal | events/lectures | Tevatron Symp | Symmetry Mag |

Royal Society (Lond) |homepage |webcasts |webcast index

Royal Institution (Lond) |homepage |RiChannel (science videos)

Simons Foundation (USA) homepage

TED talks homepage

Gresham College video lectures (London) homepage

Cambridge Univ (UK) | video & audio homepage | YouTube lectures |

Madingley Lectures (Cambridge Univ UK) video lectures

MIT OpenCourse video Lectures (USA) homepage

MIT (USA) video lectures

Case Western Reserve Univ (USA) video lectures

Natural History Museum (London) | homepage

David Deutsch website homepage

Darwin (1809--1882) Wikipedia | Darwin online | Nature/darwin/ | Darwin's lost slides

DNA hist archive makers-of-modern-genetics

The British Geological Survey | Homepage |

Health Protection Agency (UK)

Mayo Clinic useful medical info


NIH Body weight simulator

libraries arrowup

The British Library (London) Homepage | Integrated Catalogue

Oxford Univ Library (Bodleian) SOLO catalog

Nottingham Univ Library Integrated Catalogue

Nottingham Central Library Catalogue

Digital Library of open source books (Cornell Univ)

Gottingen Digital Archive

Internet Archive of open source books

Copac merged online catalogues of 24 major UK university libraries

Project Gutenberg access to online books

Google books access to online books

Wikipedia book sources list of sources for free online books

Wikibooks free online books in WIKI format

arrowup Anaesthesia

history arrowup

TV series: Medical Mavaricks --- by M Mosely (6 parts)

TV series: History of surgery --- by M Mosely (4 parts)

Hist of Anaes Soc UK

Nuffield Anaes Museum

ASA Wood Library & Anaesthesia History Museum

UCSF library & Guedel Anesthesia Collection
Note: the Arthur E Guedel Anesthesia Collection (which contains the archives and films of the Gill-Merrill Expedition of 1938) was transferred to the UCSF Archive and Special Collections in 2015.

general arrowup

OHMD device (Optical Head-Mounted Display)

Br J Anaesthesia (journal) Homepage

Anesthesiology (journal) Homepage

Anesthesia and Analgesia (journal) Homepage | archive

Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Anaesthesia

Minerva Anestesiologica (open access journal) Homepage

Chest (journal) Homepage :free access to their archive, collections and supplements

Bronchoscopy International online-bronchoscopy resource.

Peter Slinger's thoracic & bronchoscopy website

Axillary vein access & radiology/ultrasound

Virginia Hosp radiology dept chest xray resource.

Critical Care guidelines


Royal College of Anaesthetists homepage

arrowup Medical computing

British Computing Society BCS homepage | BCS Open Source Specialist Group

Microsoft RESEARCH homepage |The Fourth Paradigm |

List of open source healthcare software (wikipedia)

OpenClinical open source eHealth

NHS open source community for healthcare

NHS Common User Interface

NHS Connecting for Health

HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (wikipedia)

NHS Map of Medicine---access

NHS connecting-for-health web site

Drugs, Medicines and Devices NHS DM+D web site | DM+D registration | DM+D download

Institute for Digital Healthcare (Warwick Univ)

Electrical and Computer Engineering in Medicine (ECEM) anaesthesia informatics & technology (Vancouver)

BioMedCentral Medical Informatics and Decision Making

SCATA Society of Computing and Technology in Anaesthesia

ESCTAIC European Society of Computing and Technology in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

NISCA Northern Ireland Society of Computing in Anaesthesia

Medical Computing Society

Computing History Museum at Stanford University.

arrowup Linux

Linux Wikipedia entry

Debian linux home page | wiki | search for packages | Debian Online Help

Ubuntu linux

Tecmint (Linux HOWTO guide)

YoLinux homepage | tutorials | burning CDs DVDs

Linux journals Linux Online | Linux Journal

DistroWatch Linux distro comparisons

Linux desktop reviews Linux distros

Workspot online Linux desktop demos

Search for RPM packages rpm.pbone.net

Kile text-editor homepage

X project XFree86.org | XFree.org | X.org

Gloucester LUG (Linux User Group)


Linux Documentation Project | Linux hardware HOWTO | Super MAN pages

Shotts WE (2009) The Linux Command Line [an excellent entry-level book on the basics of Linux, 522 pages (downloadable PDF, 2MB)]

LinuxCommand.org A useful linux education website

The Bash Reference Manual downloadable HTML reference to the Bash shell

hypexr.org Linux info---see Getting started with BASH: a BASH tutorial

LinuxFromScratch.org---index index

LinuxFromScratch.org Bash startup files

arrowup TeX and LaTeX    | TUG homepage | CTAN homepage | comp.text.tex |

LaTeX and `plain' TeX are the core components of the widely used open-source (free) typesetting system, which is freely available for all computer platforms (Linux/Unix, Microsoft, MacOS, and others). Roughly speaking, `plain' TeX is the original system of low-level code, while LaTeX is a comprehensive system of macro-packages which greatly facilitates the use of TeX code and hence makes the process of typesetting much more straight forward.

Over the years LaTeX and `plain' TeX have been greatly extended by an extremely active world-wide open-source community, into the world's leading typesetting system for getting maths, poems, plays, graphics, music, ... onto paper, PS, PDF, HTML, XML etc. There is an active TeX Users Group in most countries, and several national and international TeX conferences are held each year (see the TUG homepage for conference information). All TeX-related software is freely available from web archives and on DVD (see the `Installation' section below). For information regarding on-going software development see the Latex-Project website.

Recent development: arrowup Although pdfLaTeX is currently the TeX engine used by most people, new `engines' are being developed and upgraded. For example, the XeTeX and XeLaTeX engines significantly extend pdfLaTeX by offering native support for Unicode, and allowing easy use of modern font formats (eg, True Type and Open Type). LuaTeX and LuaLaTeX further extend flexibility by incorporating the programming language Lua.

The name TeX: arrowup Nowadays, owing to the many extensions which have been developed, the name `TeX' is used generically as a collective term denoting the wide range of related and free high-quality typesetting software tools & components, for example: TeX, LaTeX, Metafont, Metapost, Babel, BibTeX, ConTeXt, PSTricks, AMSTeX, PDFTeX, LuaTeX, XeTeX, and more, all of which come with any standard TeX installation.

Usage: arrowup Once you have a working TeX system installed on your computer (see the `Installation' section below), documents are then typeset by first creating a file (the tex file) containing tex commands and of course words, diagrams, pictures etc. You then use one of the TeX engines (either `plain' TeX itself, or more usually either LaTeX, pdfLaTeX, XeLaTeX, LuaLaTeX) to generate the output file (say, a PDF file) which can then be viewed in the usual way. Other document formats, eg HTML, DVI, PS etc are generated in a similar fashion using the appropriate conversion `tool' or `TeX' engine.

History: arrowup The original TeX system (now known as `plain' TeX) was initially developed in 1978 by the Stanford professor of computing Donald Knuth (1938--). LaTeX, the associated system of TeX macro packages, was developed in 1985 by Leslie Lamport (1941--). Both of these computer scientists are detailed in the book Out of their minds--the lives and discoveries of 15 great computer scientists by DE Shasha and CA Lazere (1995) [publ: Copernicus, Springer-Verlag]. Note that TeX is a programming language in its own right---a typesetting language.

Some interesting historical overviews are as follows:
--- A brief history of TeX. In: Taylor P (1996) Computer typesetting or electronic publishing? New trends in scientific publishing.
--- Reutenauer A (2008) A brief history of TeX: II
--- Doob M (1990). TeX and the single CPU: I (Notices Amer. Math. Soc., vol 37; p 270--273)
--- Doob M (1991). TeX and the single CPU: II (Notices Amer. Math. Soc., vol 38; p 1243--1246)
Some further historical details can be found in the Wikipedia articles on TeX, and LaTeX.

Introductory information: arrowup Before deciding whether to install a TeX system (see the `Installation' section below) you may wish to read some general articles on the subject; for example, LaTeX--an introduction (by Unwalla 2006), or What is TeX?, or Starting out with TeX, or The levels of TeX, or Begining LaTeX (by Peter Flynn 2011).
Some interesting `overview' TeX articles have appeared in the journal Notices of the American Mathematical Society, as follows:
--- Downes M (Mar 2002) TeX and LaTeX2e
--- Hefferson J and Berry K (Mar 2009) The TeX family in 2008 [6.9MB]
--- Gratzer G (Jan 2009) Whati is new in LaTeX? I: Breaking free
--- Gratzer G (May 2009) What is new in LaTeX? II: TeX implementations, evolution or revolution
--- Gratzer G (Sep 2009) What is new in LaTeX? III: Formatting references
--- Gratzer G (June/July 2011) What is new in LaTeX? IV: WYSIWIG LaTeX
--- Gratzer G (March 2013) What is new in LaTeX? V: LaTeX on an iPad -- Foundation
--- Gratzer G (April 2013) What is new in LaTeX? VI: LaTeX on an iPad -- Empire
--- Gratzer G (June/July 2015) What is new in LaTeX? VII: The STIX math symbols

Installation: arrowup TeX systems can be installed either from the DVD, or by on-line download from the internet (see below).

--- DVD (TeX Collection): Contains complete implementations of TeX and associated systems for Linux/Unix (TeXLive), MS Windows (proTeXt), and MacOS (MacTex), as well as a copy of the extensive CTAN archive of TeX software. Although all of the TeX systems are freely available for download, they are large systems (1-2GB) and are most conveniently installed from this annual DVD (known as the TeX Collection). The latest version of the TeX Collection DVD (2015) is available from the TUG Store for about US$50. Alternatively, it is probably cheaper to join your local TeX Users Group, since the annual DVD is a free membership benefit. For example, membership of the UK TeX Users Group is only about £10.

--- on-line download: See Marc van Dongen's useful documentation for installing LaTeX on MS Windows (chapter 17) and Unix/Linux (chapter 18) platforms.

--- Debian platform and TeXLive: If installing TeX on a Debian platform see (TeXLive & Debian)

--- MS Windows and MiKTeX: For MS Windows platforms a particularly convenient and simple `entry-level' approach is to download the `basic' MiKTeX installer which, when you run it, installs a small MiKTeX system (offering just the pdfLaTeX engine). Once MiKTeX is installed, you will need to download and install an editor/environment GUI (for example, TeXworks), which will allow you to easily write/edit TeX files and generate PDF output. The TeXworks editor is an excellent choice since it also automatically coordinates the real-time downloading of any missing packages or files you require for a document.
For tweaking MS Windows 7 (eg enabling filename extensions etc) see Stan Brown's Windows 7 tips & tweaks

Documentation: arrowup A good list of TeX-related documentation is at TeX resources on the web, and also at the Latex-Project website for guides and books on TeX. Of course the TeX Users Group homepage and the FAQ and the TeX Catalogue and LaTeX reference manual are also good places to browse. See also the directory /texmf-dist/doc/latex/base/ for in depth information on all things to do with the LaTeX system and packages.
Other useful documents:
--- Wikipedia: general info TeX | LaTeX.
--- Wikibook: in depth coverage TeX | LaTeX |
--- ConTeXt (TeX macro package): ConTeXt
--- LaTeX: LaTeX reference manual
--- XeTeX: XeTeX on the WEB | XeTeX for Linux | XeTeX Companion 2010 [112 pages,3MB]
--- LuaTeX: |home |LuaTeX wiki |Programming in LuaTeX |Fonts in LuaTeX |Lua tutorials

--- Xits maths font | CTAN | catalog entry

Marc van Dongen's book and lecture presentations on LaTeX typesetting

Nicola Talbot's books on LaTeX and LaTeX for novices and LaTeX for writing a thesis

Springer Verlag various LaTeX packages

TeX symbols (STIX package) symbols for TeX and maths

TeX videos collection of historical TeX videos

Editors: arrowup
--- free text editors: | Kile |TeXworks |TeXstudio |jedit |

TeX / wordprocessor converters: arrowup TeX converter webpage

Journals: arrowup The TeX User's Group publishes two English language journals, namely, TUGboat (contents) and PracTeX both of which are freely available on the web.

Users Groups: arrowup Most countries have a strong TeX Users Group, many of which produce a journal which often carries English language articles.
--- TeX Users Group (TUG) homepage
--- UK TeX Users Group (ukTUG) homepage
--- Polish TeX Users Group (GUST) | homepage |
--- Czech TeX Users Group (CSTUG) | homepage

Conferences: arrowup The main regular international conferences are those of TUG, EuroTeX, BachoTeX, ConTeXt. Note that most national TeX Users Groups also hold their own annual conferences.
--- BachoTeX conference proceedings: | homepage |

Usenet groups: arrowup | English language (comp.text.tex) | (derkeiler format)

Mailing list archives: arrowup | list info | tex-live | tex-k |

Interactive online LaTeX test facility: arrowup The following sites are a useful interactive resource for those wanting to explore TeX typesetting; --- just type in some code (LaTeX) and see how it is typeset.
| LaTeX test pad (TeXeR) | TEXonWEB | mathBIN | TeXpaste | simpleLaTeX | LaTeX sandbox | LaTeX equation editor |

Links: arrowup

TEXonWEB An experimental interactive facility for testing/writing/storing TeX/LaTeX code on the web

LaTeXsearch a LaTeX search tool (eg. for TeX code and formulas etc)

TeXblog.net Stephen Kottwitz's TeX website

TeX stackexchange TeX Q&A website

What LaTeX can do Lim's conf slide presentation 2011

ukTUG LaTeX thesis templates

Asymptote a powerful vector graphics system for use with LaTeX

SVGLaTeX SVG graphics

The Unicode Standard

The History of Computer Programming Languages

Lorem Ipsum `dummy text' for testing typesetting (see: lipsum.sty)

arrowup Perl

new to Perl? --if so then visit Learn.Perl.org

Perl websites perl.org | Perlmonks | Perlwatch | CPAN archive

StrawberryPerl an excellent free OS Perl system for MS Windows

jedit good free OS text editor for MSWindows/Linux/

Math::Polynomial::Solve a Perl module for solving polynomials written by John Gamble

general computing what-cs-majors-should-know

Python websites | python.org | docs for 3.2

arrowup GNUplot

GNUplot websites homepage | FAQ | demo pages

Manuals: GNUplot cookbook

arrowup WWW tools

Firefox Mozilla Plugin-in check plugincheck

Technical solutions (programming & computing) see Stan Brown's technical solutions

DjVu reader tools (DjVuLibre + DjView): djvu sourceforge

7-Zip Free OS Zip tool for MS-Windows

journal and DOI tools CrossRef

Colour tools: chart & multicolour tool

w3schools (homepage) | TAG page

EUKhost web-hosting

MIME media types

CoreFTP Free FTP server for MS-Windows (coreFTPlite)

FileZilla Free FTP client/serverfor MS-Windows

DropBox cloud backup resource (2GB free)

W3C markup validation service (for checking www pages)

mailhide (for creating safe access to a mail address)

speedtest.net (for checking broadband speed)

3G mobile broadband (ZTE MF627 USB modem for mobile broadband)

Google addurl utility

tinyurl (for creating short URLs)


free Handheld phone HTML-browser simulators Opera | Openwave | Nokia

arrowup Pulfrich effect    (my articles on the Pulfrich effect)

The Pulfrich effect (discovered by the physicist Carl Pulfrich 1858-1927) is a most unusual visual phenomenon with interesting mathematical, vision physiology, and clinical applications, which is occasionally exploited for making 3D television programs (a memorable Dr Who episode was made this way--see New Scientist article (1993); 13 November, p.23---as well as an episode of `3rd rock from the sun'). The Pulfrich website is the main location for all things Pulfrich. The 1922 paper in which he describes the Pulfrich-effect is as follows:

Pulfrich C (1922).
Die Stereoskopie im Dienste der isochromen und heterochromen Photometrie.
Naturwissenschaften; vol 10, pp 553--564.

arrowup Maths    | Rubik cube | origami |

Wolfram MathWorld | homepage | Wolfram-Alpha |

Wolfram demonstrations project homepage | PlaneCubicCurves | real elliptic curves |

MathSciNet homepage

MathTube homepage

Birds & frogs | phd comics |

Math blogs | math blog com | Gowers blog | sbseminar | not even wrong | ars mathematica | Learntofish |

other blogs | scienceANDreason |

Free books | general | maths | programming | Prof Downey |

New York Times | homepage | Stephen Strogatz: Elements of Maths | Chasing the Higgs boson |

Museum of mathematics home | math-encounters | youtube channel |

London Math Society home | lectures | youtube channel |

Simons Foundation (USA) homepage

Am Math Soc (AMS) homepage | MathSciNet | Notices | Bulletin | Maths moments | Maths in the media

Am Math Soc (AMS) Math Samplings | feature column | feature column archive | Blog -- visual insight |

European Digital Mathematical Library

European Mathematical Society homepage | newsletter |

American Mathematical Monthly | Mathematical Gazette | PLUS (online maths journal)

Math Assoc Am (MAA) homepage | Digital Library | online J LOCI |

YouTube homepage | numberphile | sixtysymbols | singingbanana

The Mathematical Intelligencer (table of contents)

NUMDAM (French maths open access archive) NUMDAM archive (home)

Encyclopedia of Math (EoM) (Wiki maths resource)

proofWiki (Wiki maths resource)

Digital Library of Math Functions (DLMF) | homepage | index |

Feynman: Feynman lectures on physics (the book on-line)

Feynman: Project-Tuva (The 7 Messenger Lectures by Feynman in 1964 on `The character of physical law')

Clay Mathematical Institute homepage | lectures/videos | 1999 annual meeting

Prof NJ Wildberger (many different maths courses) lectures/videos

Vega Science Trust Videos homepage | lectures/videos | Royal Society videos | Feynman 1979 Robb Mem Lects, NZ

Science Center Research Lecture Series (Harvard) homepage | archive | Elliptic curves

Gresham College (London) homepage | maths lectures

MIT OpenCourse video Lectures (USA) homepage

Institute of Engineering & Technology (UK) | home | webcasts | Lecture series

MathsJam (recreational maths events)

common errors in undergrad maths

Geometry and the Imagination (course handouts)

Understanding uncertainty (David Spiegelhalter's `uncertainty' website)

divisbyzero website homepage | maths video lectures

Barton maths homepage

Mathematical Notes (open access)

IOP science (various journals--some free articles)

JSTOR science archive | arXiv e-Print archive | arXiv frontend

Planet maths homepage | category index

Br Society History of Mathematics (has useful links page)

Michael de Villiers dynamic geometry (requires Java-enabled browser)

GeoGebra (dynamic geometry/graph plotting Java tool)

MathJax (OS Java graphics & web maths utility)

Mathlets (Java graphics)

(milefoot) Plane curves homepage | cubics |

(JCC) Dynamic web tools graph utility | general |

York Univ history of statistics (statistics resource)

MAA maths digital library (mathematics resource)

National curvebank (dynamic curve illustrations)

W3 maths

Dan Kalman's maths website

D Hoffman's maths website (see his Conic book)

Jan Wassenaar's 2dcurves website

Earliest known uses of some words in mathematics Jeff Miller's website

Digital Library of the Historical Maths Book Collection (Cornell Univ)

ebooks Cornell Digital Library of the Historical Maths Book Collection (Cornell Univ)

UM Digital Library Univ Michigan Hist Math Collection

Mathematics atlas

Wolfram quintic poster

square-root calculation by hand | standard method | video by Davidson1954 |

cube-root calculation by hand | standard method | exact cases (video) |

Galois groups (mathpages website).

groups (Keith Conrad's website).

Rubik cube arrowup

The Rubik bundle LaTeX packages for typesetting Rubik cube stuff

Calegari D (2013) you-can-solve-the-cube-with-commutators

Rubik cube 20 moves max

Rubik cube speedsolving website

Rubik cube Java utility

Rubik cube WikiHOW

Rubik cube and groups: see David Joyner's book Adventures in group theory (2nd ed, 2008)

catalog of rotations: Lars Vandenberg's cubezone website | homepage | OLL page | PLL page |

catalog (Thibaut Duvoid) | notation | solutions |

catalog: see John Kerl's website Rubik stuff

catalog: see Bob Burton's website cubewhiz

groups: see jens Funke's page Rubik stuff

groups: see Gilles Roux website Methods for beginners

groups: see Ryan Heise's website How to solve Rubik's cube

groups (Jim Mahoney's website) Solve the cube1

Origami arrowup

During the last 30 years or so the Japanese art of paper folding, known as Origami, has increasingly been attracting the attention of mathematicians and engineers, who have now formalised origami mathematically by establishing the so-called seven Huzita axioms of folding (see Lang's website). For example, using origami one can solve equations, trisect angles, generate lengths representing rational and irrational numbers (see Lang 2003), and create representations of fractal systems (Dacorogna 2010). Indeed, a forthcoming space telescope is being designed with origami principles in mind (see Dacorogna 2010).
For an introduction to the extraordinary world of modern origami see the two video lectures by Lang and by Erik Demaine.

--- RJ Lang origami website (»science»Huzita)
--- RJ Lang TED origami lecture (video)
--- Erik Demaine: Math encounters---the geometry of origami (video lecture) |1/4 |
--- Lang RJ (2003) Origami and geometric constructions [PDF, 55 pages; 1.8MB]
--- Dacorogna B etal (May 2010) Origami and partial differential equations [PDF, 9 pages; 17.1MB]
--- Haga K (2009): Origamics: mathematical explorations through paper folding. (World Scientific, Singapore)
--- Mathematical imagery (an AMS website which includes origami)

Some early papers on polynomials arrowup

arrowup William Freeman Daniell (1817-1865)    (my articles on Daniell)

WF Daniell was an English army surgeon and botanist. He was instrumental in bringing Calabar beans from West Africa to Edinburgh pharmacologists who then discovered their physostigmine content. Edinburgh physicians then went on to show that physostigmine was the first anticholinergic. Daniell collected plant specimens in Africa, Jamaica, China, and several plants have been named after him. His specimens are housed in herbarium of the Natural History Museum (London) and also in the herbarium at Kew Botanic Gardens (London). See also online biography

RWD Nickalls arrowup