Cafe Scientifique  Coffee chemistry  nCategory Cafe  The Drawbridge  Edge 
YouTube  CinemaWorld  BBC iPlayer  BBC magazine
Doctors.net.uk  Google  DuckDuckGo  time&date  British Met Office  WeatherSpark  Postcodes
Periodic table  Periodic Table videos  Casio calculator  true random number generator  Time is
HM Nautical Almanac Office  Nautical Almanac online  TheNauticalAlmanac  Thomas Gunn Navigation Store  Eclipses info  Severn bore  BSS
Transportdirect  seat61  tripadvisor  exchange rate calculator  streetmap utility
AbeBooks  books (France)  Cheltenham
open2.net (Open Univ/BBC popular science)
FilmClips Tango (AlPacino: Scent of a woman, 1992)
Journals:  Nature  Science  ScienceNOW  The Lancet 
science search and TOC  NIHpubmed  ScienceDirect  SemanticScholar 
science journal and eprint archives JSTOR  arXiv  arXiv easyfrontend 
HOWTOs  wikihowto
CERN homepage  mapsearch  maps  guide2visiting  CERN Bulletin  CERN Interactions  CERNTV 
CERN Opendays 2013 videoLectures 
FERMILAB homepage  today journal  events/lectures  Tevatron Symp  Symmetry Mag 
Royal Society (Lond) homepage webcasts webcast index
Royal Institution (Lond) homepage RiChannel (science videos)
Simons Foundation (USA) homepage
TED talks homepage
Gresham College video lectures (London) homepage
Cambridge Univ (UK)  video & audio homepage  YouTube lectures 
Madingley Lectures (Cambridge Univ UK) video lectures
MIT OpenCourse video Lectures (USA) homepage
MIT (USA) video lectures
Case Western Reserve Univ (USA) video lectures
Natural History Museum (London)  homepage
David Deutsch website homepage
Darwin (18091882) Wikipedia  Darwin online  Nature/darwin/  Darwin's lost slides
DNA hist archive makersofmoderngenetics
The British Geological Survey  Homepage 
Mayo Clinic useful medical info
The British Library (London) Homepage  Integrated Catalogue
Oxford Univ Library (Bodleian) SOLO catalog
Nottingham Univ Library Integrated Catalogue
Nottingham Central Library Catalogue
Digital Library of open source books (Cornell Univ)
Internet Archive of open source books
Copac merged online catalogues of 24 major UK university libraries
Project Gutenberg access to online books
Google books access to online books
Wikipedia book sources list of sources for free online books
Wikibooks free online books in WIKI format
TV series: Medical Mavaricks  by M Mosely (6 parts)
TV series: History of surgery  by M Mosely (4 parts)
ASA Wood Library & Anaesthesia History Museum
OHMD device (Optical HeadMounted Display)
Br J Anaesthesia (journal) Homepage
Anesthesiology (journal) Homepage
Anesthesia and Analgesia (journal) Homepage  archive
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Anaesthesia
Minerva Anestesiologica (open access journal) Homepage
Chest (journal) Homepage :free access to their archive, collections and supplements
Bronchoscopy International onlinebronchoscopy resource.
Peter Slinger's thoracic & bronchoscopy website
Axillary vein access & radiology/ultrasound
Virginia Hosp radiology dept chest xray resource.
Royal College of Anaesthetists homepage
British Computing Society BCS homepage  BCS Open Source Specialist Group
Microsoft RESEARCH homepage The Fourth Paradigm 
List of open source healthcare software (wikipedia)
OpenClinical open source eHealth
NHS open source community for healthcare
HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (wikipedia)
NHS connectingforhealth web site
Drugs, Medicines and Devices NHS DM+D web site  DM+D registration  DM+D download
Institute for Digital Healthcare (Warwick Univ)
Electrical and Computer Engineering in Medicine (ECEM) anaesthesia informatics & technology (Vancouver)
BioMedCentral Medical Informatics and Decision Making
SCATA Society of Computing and Technology in Anaesthesia
ESCTAIC European Society of Computing and Technology in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
NISCA Northern Ireland Society of Computing in Anaesthesia
Computing History Museum at Stanford University.
Linux Wikipedia entry
Debian linux home page  wiki  search for packages  Debian Online Help
YoLinux homepage  tutorials  burning CDs DVDs
Linux journals Linux Online  Linux Journal
DistroWatch Linux distro comparisons
Linux desktop reviews Linux distros
Workspot online Linux desktop demos
Search for RPM packages rpm.pbone.net
Kile texteditor homepage
X project XFree86.org  XFree.org  X.org
Gloucester LUG (Linux User Group)
DocumentationLinux Documentation Project  Linux hardware HOWTO  Super MAN pages
Shotts WE (2009) The Linux Command Line [an excellent entrylevel book on the basics of Linux, 522 pages (downloadable PDF, 2MB)]
LinuxCommand.org A useful linux education website
The Bash Reference Manual downloadable HTML reference to the Bash shell
hypexr.org Linux infosee Getting started with BASH: a BASH tutorial
LinuxFromScratch.orgindex index
LinuxFromScratch.org Bash startup files
LaTeX and `plain' TeX are the core components of the widely used opensource (free) typesetting system, which is freely available for all computer platforms (Linux/Unix, Microsoft, MacOS, and others). Roughly speaking, `plain' TeX is the original system of lowlevel code, while LaTeX is a comprehensive system of macropackages which greatly facilitates the use of TeX code and hence makes the process of typesetting much more straight forward.
Over the years LaTeX and `plain' TeX have been greatly extended by an extremely active worldwide opensource community, into the world's leading typesetting system for getting maths, poems, plays, graphics, music, ... onto paper, PS, PDF, HTML, XML etc. There is an active TeX Users Group in most countries, and several national and international TeX conferences are held each year (see the TUG homepage for conference information). All TeXrelated software is freely available from web archives and on DVD (see the `Installation' section below). For information regarding ongoing software development see the LatexProject website.
Recent development: Although pdfLaTeX is currently the TeX engine used by most people, new `engines' are being developed and upgraded. For example, the XeTeX and XeLaTeX engines significantly extend pdfLaTeX by offering native support for Unicode, and allowing easy use of modern font formats (eg, True Type and Open Type). LuaTeX and LuaLaTeX further extend flexibility by incorporating the programming language Lua.
The name TeX: Nowadays, owing to the many extensions which have been developed, the name `TeX' is used generically as a collective term denoting the wide range of related and free highquality typesetting software tools & components, for example: TeX, LaTeX, Metafont, Metapost, Babel, BibTeX, ConTeXt, PSTricks, AMSTeX, PDFTeX, LuaTeX, XeTeX, and more, all of which come with any standard TeX installation.
Usage: Once you have a working TeX system installed on your computer (see the `Installation' section below), documents are then typeset by first creating a file (the tex file) containing tex commands and of course words, diagrams, pictures etc. You then use one of the TeX engines (either `plain' TeX itself, or more usually either LaTeX, pdfLaTeX, XeLaTeX, LuaLaTeX) to generate the output file (say, a PDF file) which can then be viewed in the usual way. Other document formats, eg HTML, DVI, PS etc are generated in a similar fashion using the appropriate conversion `tool' or `TeX' engine.
History: The original TeX system (now known as `plain' TeX) was initially developed in 1978 by the Stanford professor of computing Donald Knuth (1938). LaTeX, the associated system of TeX macro packages, was developed in 1985 by Leslie Lamport (1941). Both of these computer scientists are detailed in the book Out of their mindsthe lives and discoveries of 15 great computer scientists by DE Shasha and CA Lazere (1995) [publ: Copernicus, SpringerVerlag]. Note that TeX is a programming language in its own righta typesetting language.
Some interesting historical overviews are as follows:
 A brief history of TeX. In: Taylor P (1996) Computer typesetting or electronic publishing? New trends in scientific publishing.
 Reutenauer A (2008) A brief history of TeX: II
 Doob M (1990). TeX and the single CPU: I (Notices Amer. Math. Soc., vol 37; p 270273)
 Doob M (1991). TeX and the single CPU: II (Notices Amer. Math. Soc., vol 38; p 12431246)
Some further historical details can be found in the Wikipedia articles on
TeX, and
LaTeX.
Introductory information:
Before deciding whether to install a TeX system (see the `Installation' section below) you may wish to read some general articles on the subject; for example,
LaTeXan introduction (by Unwalla 2006), or
What is TeX?, or
Starting out with TeX, or
The levels of TeX, or
Begining LaTeX (by Peter Flynn 2011).
Some interesting `overview' TeX articles have appeared in the journal
Notices of the American Mathematical Society, as follows:
 Downes M (Mar 2002) TeX and LaTeX2e
 Hefferson J and Berry K (Mar 2009) The TeX family in 2008 [6.9MB]
 Gratzer G (Jan 2009) Whati is new in LaTeX? I: Breaking free
 Gratzer G (May 2009) What is new in LaTeX? II: TeX implementations, evolution or revolution
 Gratzer G (Sep 2009) What is new in LaTeX? III: Formatting references
 Gratzer G (June/July 2011) What is new in LaTeX? IV: WYSIWIG LaTeX
 Gratzer G (March 2013) What is new in LaTeX? V: LaTeX on an iPad  Foundation
 Gratzer G (April 2013) What is new in LaTeX? VI: LaTeX on an iPad  Empire
 Gratzer G (June/July 2015) What is new in LaTeX? VII: The STIX math symbols
Installation: TeX systems can be installed either from the DVD, or by online download from the internet (see below).
 DVD (TeX Collection): Contains complete implementations of TeX and associated systems for Linux/Unix (TeXLive), MS Windows (proTeXt), and MacOS (MacTex), as well as a copy of the extensive CTAN archive of TeX software. Although all of the TeX systems are freely available for download, they are large systems (12GB) and are most conveniently installed from this annual DVD (known as the TeX Collection). The latest version of the TeX Collection DVD (2015) is available from the TUG Store for about US$50. Alternatively, it is probably cheaper to join your local TeX Users Group, since the annual DVD is a free membership benefit. For example, membership of the UK TeX Users Group is only about £10.
 online download: See Marc van Dongen's useful documentation for installing LaTeX on MS Windows (chapter 17) and Unix/Linux (chapter 18) platforms.
 Debian platform and TeXLive: If installing TeX on a Debian platform see (TeXLive & Debian)
 MS Windows and MiKTeX:
For MS Windows platforms a particularly convenient and simple `entrylevel' approach is to download the `basic' MiKTeX installer which, when you run it, installs a small MiKTeX system (offering just the pdfLaTeX engine).
Once MiKTeX is installed, you will need to download and install an editor/environment GUI (for example, TeXworks), which will allow you to easily write/edit TeX files and generate PDF output. The TeXworks editor is an excellent choice since it also automatically coordinates the realtime downloading of any missing packages or files you require for a document.
For tweaking MS Windows 7 (eg enabling filename extensions etc) see Stan Brown's Windows 7 tips & tweaks
Documentation:
A good list of TeXrelated documentation is at
TeX resources on the web, and also at the
LatexProject website for
guides and
books on TeX.
Of course the
TeX Users Group homepage and the
FAQ and the
TeX Catalogue and
LaTeX reference manual are also good places to browse.
See also the directory /texmfdist/doc/latex/base/ for in depth information on all things to do with the LaTeX system and packages.
Other useful documents:
 Wikipedia: general info
TeX 
LaTeX.
 Wikibook: in depth coverage
TeX 
LaTeX 
 ConTeXt (TeX macro package):
ConTeXt
 LaTeX:
LaTeX reference manual
 XeTeX:
XeTeX on the WEB 
XeTeX for Linux 
XeTeX Companion 2010 [112 pages,3MB]
 LuaTeX:
home
LuaTeX wiki
Programming in LuaTeX
Fonts in LuaTeX
Lua tutorials
 Xits maths font  CTAN  catalog entry
Marc van Dongen's book and lecture presentations on LaTeX typesetting
Nicola Talbot's books on LaTeX and LaTeX for novices and LaTeX for writing a thesis
Springer Verlag various LaTeX packages
TeX symbols (STIX package) symbols for TeX and maths
TeX videos collection of historical TeX videos
Editors:
 free text editors:
 Kile
TeXworks
TeXstudio
jedit

TeX / wordprocessor converters: TeX converter webpage
Journals: The TeX User's Group publishes two English language journals, namely, TUGboat (contents) and PracTeX both of which are freely available on the web.
Users Groups:
Most countries have a strong TeX Users Group, many of which produce a journal which often carries English language articles.
 TeX Users Group (TUG) homepage
 UK TeX Users Group (ukTUG) homepage
 Polish TeX Users Group (GUST)  homepage 
 Czech TeX Users Group (CSTUG)  homepage
Conferences:
The main regular international conferences are those of TUG, EuroTeX, BachoTeX, ConTeXt. Note that most national TeX Users Groups also hold their own annual conferences.
 BachoTeX conference proceedings:
 homepage 
Usenet groups:  English language (comp.text.tex)  (derkeiler format)
Mailing list archives:  list info  texlive  texk 
Interactive online LaTeX test facility:
The following sites are a useful interactive resource for those wanting to explore TeX typesetting;  just type in some code (LaTeX) and see how it is typeset.
 LaTeX test pad (TeXeR)
 TEXonWEB
 mathBIN
 TeXpaste
 simpleLaTeX
 LaTeX sandbox
 LaTeX equation editor

TEXonWEB An experimental interactive facility for testing/writing/storing TeX/LaTeX code on the web
LaTeXsearch a LaTeX search tool (eg. for TeX code and formulas etc)
TeXblog.net Stephen Kottwitz's TeX website
TeX stackexchange TeX Q&A website
What LaTeX can do Lim's conf slide presentation 2011
Asymptote a powerful vector graphics system for use with LaTeX
SVGLaTeX SVG graphics
The History of Computer Programming Languages
Lorem Ipsum `dummy text' for testing typesetting (see: lipsum.sty)
new to Perl? if so then visit Learn.Perl.org
Perl websites perl.org  Perlmonks  Perlwatch  CPAN archive
StrawberryPerl an excellent free OS Perl system for MS Windows
jedit good free OS text editor for MSWindows/Linux/Math::Polynomial::Solve a Perl module for solving polynomials written by John Gamble
general computing whatcsmajorsshouldknow
Python websites  python.org  docs for 3.2
GNUplot websites homepage  FAQ  demo pages
Manuals: GNUplot cookbook
Firefox Mozilla Pluginin check plugincheck
Technical solutions (programming & computing) see Stan Brown's technical solutions
DjVu reader tools (DjVuLibre + DjView): djvu sourceforge
7Zip Free OS Zip tool for MSWindows
journal and DOI tools CrossRef
Colour tools: chart & multicolour tool
w3schools (homepage)  TAG page
CoreFTP Free FTP server for MSWindows (coreFTPlite)
FileZilla Free FTP client/serverfor MSWindows
DropBox cloud backup resource (2GB free)
W3C markup validation service (for checking www pages)
mailhide (for creating safe access to a mail address)
speedtest.net (for checking broadband speed)
3G mobile broadband (ZTE MF627 USB modem for mobile broadband)
tinyurl (for creating short URLs)
free Handheld phone HTMLbrowser simulators Opera  Openwave  Nokia
Pulfrich effect (my articles on the Pulfrich effect)
The Pulfrich effect (discovered by the physicist Carl Pulfrich 18581927) is a most unusual visual phenomenon with interesting mathematical, vision physiology, and clinical applications, which is occasionally exploited for making 3D television programs (a memorable Dr Who episode was made this waysee New Scientist article (1993); 13 November, p.23as well as an episode of `3rd rock from the sun'). The Pulfrich website is the main location for all things Pulfrich. The 1922 paper in which he describes the Pulfricheffect is as follows:
Pulfrich C (1922).
Die Stereoskopie im Dienste der isochromen und heterochromen Photometrie.
Naturwissenschaften; vol 10, pp 553564.
Wolfram MathWorld  homepage  WolframAlpha 
Wolfram demonstrations project homepage  PlaneCubicCurves  real elliptic curves 
MathSciNet homepage
MathTube homepage
Math blogs  math blog com  Gowers blog  sbseminar  not even wrong  ars mathematica  Learntofish 
other blogs  scienceANDreason 
Free books  general  maths  programming  Prof Downey 
New York Times  homepage  Stephen Strogatz: Elements of Maths  Chasing the Higgs boson 
Museum of mathematics home  mathencounters  youtube channel 
London Math Society home  lectures  youtube channel 
Simons Foundation (USA) homepage
Am Math Soc (AMS) homepage  MathSciNet  Notices  Bulletin  Maths moments  Maths in the media
Am Math Soc (AMS) Math Samplings  feature column  feature column archive  Blog  visual insight 
European Digital Mathematical Library
European Mathematical Society homepage  newsletter 
American Mathematical Monthly  Mathematical Gazette  PLUS (online maths journal)
Math Assoc Am (MAA) homepage  Digital Library  online J LOCI 
YouTube homepage  numberphile  sixtysymbols  singingbanana
The Mathematical Intelligencer (table of contents)
NUMDAM (French maths open access archive) NUMDAM archive (home)
Encyclopedia of Math (EoM) (Wiki maths resource)
proofWiki (Wiki maths resource)
Digital Library of Math Functions (DLMF)  homepage  index 
Feynman: Feynman lectures on physics (the book online)
Feynman: ProjectTuva (The 7 Messenger Lectures by Feynman in 1964 on `The character of physical law')
Clay Mathematical Institute homepage  lectures/videos  1999 annual meeting
Prof NJ Wildberger (many different maths courses) lectures/videos
Vega Science Trust Videos homepage  lectures/videos  Royal Society videos  Feynman 1979 Robb Mem Lects, NZ
Science Center Research Lecture Series (Harvard) homepage  archive  Elliptic curves
Gresham College (London) homepage  maths lectures
MIT OpenCourse video Lectures (USA) homepage
Institute of Engineering & Technology (UK)  home  webcasts  Lecture series
MathsJam (recreational maths events)
common errors in undergrad maths
Geometry and the Imagination (course handouts)
Understanding uncertainty (David Spiegelhalter's `uncertainty' website)
divisbyzero website homepage  maths video lectures
Barton maths homepage
Mathematical Notes (open access)
IOP science (various journalssome free articles)
JSTOR science archive  arXiv ePrint archive  arXiv frontend
Planet maths homepage  category index
Br Society History of Mathematics (has useful links page)
Michael de Villiers dynamic geometry (requires Javaenabled browser)
GeoGebra (dynamic geometry/graph plotting Java tool)
MathJax (OS Java graphics & web maths utility)
Mathlets (Java graphics)
(milefoot) Plane curves homepage  cubics 
(JCC) Dynamic web tools graph utility  general 
York Univ history of statistics (statistics resource)
MAA maths digital library (mathematics resource)
National curvebank (dynamic curve illustrations)
D Hoffman's maths website (see his Conic book)
Jan Wassenaar's 2dcurves website
Earliest known uses of some words in mathematics Jeff Miller's website
Digital Library of the Historical Maths Book Collection (Cornell Univ)
ebooks Cornell Digital Library of the Historical Maths Book Collection (Cornell Univ)
UM Digital Library Univ Michigan Hist Math Collection
squareroot calculation by hand  standard method  video by Davidson1954 
cuberoot calculation by hand  standard method  exact cases (video) 
Galois groups (mathpages website).
groups (Keith Conrad's website).
The Rubik bundle LaTeX packages for typesetting Rubik cube stuff
Calegari D (2013) youcansolvethecubewithcommutators
Rubik cube 20 moves max
Rubik cube speedsolving website
Rubik cube Java utility
Rubik cube WikiHOW
Rubik cube and groups: see David Joyner's book Adventures in group theory (2nd ed, 2008)
catalog of rotations: Lars Vandenberg's cubezone website  homepage  OLL page  PLL page 
catalog (Thibaut Duvoid)  notation  solutions 
catalog: see John Kerl's website Rubik stuff
catalog: see Bob Burton's website cubewhiz
groups: see jens Funke's page Rubik stuff
groups: see Gilles Roux website Methods for beginners
groups: see Ryan Heise's website How to solve Rubik's cube
groups (Jim Mahoney's website) Solve the cube1
During the last 30 years or so the Japanese art of paper folding, known as Origami, has increasingly been attracting the attention of mathematicians and engineers, who have now formalised origami mathematically by establishing the socalled seven Huzita axioms of folding (see Lang's website). For example, using origami one can solve equations, trisect angles, generate lengths representing rational and irrational numbers (see Lang 2003), and create representations of fractal systems (Dacorogna 2010). Indeed, a forthcoming space telescope is being designed with origami principles in mind (see Dacorogna 2010).
For an introduction to the extraordinary world of modern origami see the two video lectures by Lang and by Erik Demaine.
 RJ Lang origami website (»science»Huzita)
 RJ Lang TED origami lecture (video)
 Erik Demaine: Math encountersthe geometry of origami (video lecture)
1/4

 Lang RJ (2003) Origami and geometric constructions [PDF, 55 pages; 1.8MB]
 Dacorogna B etal (May 2010) Origami and partial differential equations [PDF, 9 pages; 17.1MB]
 Haga K (2009): Origamics: mathematical explorations through paper folding. (World Scientific, Singapore)
 Mathematical imagery (an AMS website which includes origami)
Some early papers on polynomials
William Freeman Daniell (18171865) (my articles on Daniell)
WF Daniell was an English army surgeon and botanist. He was instrumental in bringing Calabar beans from West Africa to Edinburgh pharmacologists who then discovered their physostigmine content. Edinburgh physicians then went on to show that physostigmine was the first anticholinergic. Daniell collected plant specimens in Africa, Jamaica, China, and several plants have been named after him. His specimens are housed in herbarium of the Natural History Museum (London) and also in the herbarium at Kew Botanic Gardens (London). See also online biography
 Kew Botanic Gardens (London)
 Homepage
 Collections
 Economic Botany Collection
 Royal Pharmaceutical Soc Collection

 Natural History Museum (London)
 Homepage
 Collections
 Botanical collections

 The Oregon State University Botanical Department (USA) Homepage
 ALUKA resource for African plants Homepage
 The Plantlist Homepage